Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison - 1524 Words

In the novel The Bluest Eye, authored by Toni Morrison, Morrison brings up many social conflicts that occur throughout the novel. One of the biggest conflicts she brings up within the novel is racism. There are many offsets of racism that occur to many of the characters within the novel. One of the most significant issues or conflicts that branch off from racism is how racism affects and limits the opportunities that minorities have. In Morrison’s novel this type of racism that affects opportunity is directed towards African Americans. Even Tonya Cornileus stated in an article she wrote in the year 2013 that, â€Å"Today, African American men are the least likely hired or promoted† (Cornileus 136). This racial discrimination towards African Americans has a major impact on the opportunity they have in the world, just as Morrison portrayed in her novel The Bluest Eye. Racism plays a crucial part in the workforce for African Americans and all other minorities. In The Blues t Eye, Morrison wrote about the job that Polly and most African Americans had to do by working for White people because they possibly did not get the opportunity to get another job that would be better for them. Morrison states a situation that occurs between Polly and the white women she is working for in the novel by stating, ‘You leave him and then come back to work, and we’ll let bygones be bygones.’ ‘Can I have my money today?’ I said. ‘No’ she said. ‘nly when you leave him† (Morrison 121). The white womanShow MoreRelatedThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1720 Words   |  7 Pagesof The Bluest Eye, Toni Morrison, criticizes the danger of race discrimination for any kinds of situations with no exception. The purpose of the paper is explain how pervasive and destructive social racism was bound to happen in American society. The intended audiences are not only black people, but also other races had suffered racism until now. I could find out and concentrate on the most notable symbols which are whiteness, blue eyes and the characterization while reading the novel. Toni MorrisonRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1587 Words   |  7 Pagessaid, â€Å"We were born to die and we die to live.† Toni Morrison correlates to Nelson’s quote in her Nobel Lecture of 1993, â€Å"We die. That may be the meaning of life. But we do language. That may be the measure of our lives.† In Toni Morrison’s novel, The Bluest Eye, she uses language to examine the concepts of racism, lack of self-identity, gender roles, and socioeconomic hardships as they factor into a misinterpretation of the American Dream. Morrison illustrates problems that these issues provoke throughRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison956 Words   |  4 PagesHistory of Slavery Influenced the Characters of The Bluest Eye Unlike so many pieces of American literature that involve and examine the history of slavery and the years of intensely-entrenched racism that ensued, the overall plot of the novel, The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison, does not necessarily involve slavery directly, but rather examines the aftermath by delving into African-American self-hatred. Nearly all of the main characters in The Bluest Eye who are African American are dominated by the endlessRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1189 Words   |  5 PagesA standard of beauty is established by the society in which a person lives and then supported by its members in the community. In the novel The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison, we are given an extensive understanding of how whiteness is the standard of beauty through messages throughout the novel that whiteness is superior. Morrison emphasizes how this ideality distorts the minds and lives of African-American women and children. He emphasizes that in order for African-American wom en to survive in aRead MoreThe Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison1095 Words   |  5 PagesSocial class is a major theme in the book The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison. Toni Morrison is saying that there are dysfunctional families in every social class, though people only think of it in the lower class. Toni Morrison was also stating that people also use social class to separate themselves from others and apart from race; social class is one thing Pauline and Geraldine admire.Claudia, Pecola, and Frieda are affected by not only their own social status, but others social status too - for exampleRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison2069 Words   |  9 Pagesblack/whiteness. Specifically, white people were positioned at the upper part of the hierarchy, whereas, African Americans were inferior. Consequently, white people were able to control and dictate to the standards of beauty. In her novel, ‘The Bluest Eye’, Toni Morrison draws upon symbolism, narrative voice, setting and id eals of the time to expose the effects these standards had on the different characters. With the juxtaposition of Claudia MacTeer and Pecola Breedlove, who naively conforms to the barrierRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1103 Words   |  5 Pages Toni Morrison is known for her prized works exploring themes and issues that are rampant in African American communities. Viewing Toni Morrison’s novel The Bluest Eye from a psychoanalytical lens sheds light onto how, as members of a marginalized group, character’s low self-esteem reflect into their actions, desires, and defense mechanisms. In her analysis of psychoanalytical criticism, Lois Tyson focuses on psychological defense mechanisms such as selective perception, selective memory, denialRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison Essay1314 Words   |  6 PagesThe Bluest Eye, by Toni Morrison, encompasses the themes of youth, gender, and race. The African American Civil Rights Movement had recently ended at the time the novel was written. In the book, Morrison utilizes a first-person story to convey her views on racial inequality. The protagonist and her friends find themselves in moments where they are filled with embarrassment and have a wish to flee such events. Since they are female African Americans, they are humiliated in society. One of Morrison’sRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1462 Words   |  6 PagesBildungsroman literature in the 20th century embodies the virtues of different authors’ contexts and cultures, influencing the fictional stories of children’s lives around the wo rld.. The Bluest Eye is a 1970 publication by Toni Morrison set in 1940s Ohio in America, focal around the consequence of racism in an American community on the growth of a child, distinct in its use of a range of narrative perspectives. Annie John by Jamaica Kincaid is a novel set in post colonial Antigua, published in 1985Read MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison992 Words   |  4 PagesSet in the 1940s, during the Great Depression, the novel The Bluest Eye, by Toni Morrison, illustrates in the inner struggles of African-American criticism. The Breedloves, the family the story revolves around a poor, black and ugly family. They live in a two-room store front, which is open, showing that they have nothing. In the family there is a girl named Pecola Breedlove, she is a black and thinks that she is ugly because she is not white. Pecola’s father, Cholly Breedlove, goes through humiliated

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about Is Abortion Morally Permissible or Not

The following essay will examine the morality of abortion with specific reference to the writings of Don Marquis, Judith Jarvis Thompson, Peter Singer and Mary Anne Warren. I will begin by assessing the strength of the argument provided by Marquis which claims that abortion is impermissible because it deprives a being of a potential â€Å"future like ours,† and then go on to consider the writings of Singer, Thomson and Warren to both refute Marquis claims and support my assertion that abortion is morally permissible primarily because of the threat to the freedom and bodily autonomy of women extending the right to life to a foetus in utero would pose. To fully understand the argument we should first define the parameters of the debate and the†¦show more content†¦Don Marquis spearheads the potentiality argument in his essay on the immorality of abortion (Study Guide, pp. 167-73), claiming that it is impermissible because it deprives the foetus of a â€Å"future like ours,† and is consequently morally on par with killing a healthy adult (Study Guide, p. 170). Despite Marquis’ claims that his argument combines the best aspects of the personhood and sanctity of life ideas to produce a superior ethical theory on the immorality of abortion (Study Guide, p. 170), his argument features many flaws, including seemingly ad hoc explanations to avoid speciesism (Study Guide, p. 169) and exclude contraception (Study Guide, p. 173), and, most prominently, ill-defined terminology. His entire argument centers on the value of a â€Å"future like ours† and yet he fails to define what exact quality makes such a potentia l future valuable, giving only a vague indication that it is somehow different to personhood. The vagueness of what is essentially the key to his entire theory makes it difficult to accurately dispute his claims, yet he concedes himself that his theory is simply an indirect and unconvincing way of reaching the same conclusion as the personhood argument (Study Guide, p.171). His conclusions are in essences the same as those drawn from the personhood argument, it argues that foetuses should be granted legal personhood based onShow MoreRelatedIs Abortion Morally Permissible?966 Words   |  4 PagesA Defense of Abortion, she argues that abortion is permissible because an individual’s right over their own body outweighs a fetus’s right to life. In this paper I will focus on whether or not abortion is always permissible. First, I will present Thomson’s argument which says that abortion is sometimes permissible. I will do so by describing her â€Å"famous violinistà ¢â‚¬  thought experiment. Next, I will object to Thomson’s claim and expand the scope of her argument by arguing that abortion is in fact, alwaysRead MoreAbortion Is Morally Permissible?1817 Words   |  8 PagesAbortion is the willful and deliberate termination of pregnancy before the fetus comes to term; meaning the death of a fetus. Not having access to safe and legal abortions can cause more pain than positive it can lead women to be injured or infertile or even dead. Also, the denial of access to safe and legal abortion is said to be depriving women of the right to control their own body. However, the above point does not persuade people who are against abortion because they believe that fetuses areRead MoreAbortion Is Morally Permissible?1675 Words   |  7 PagesAbortion is defined as â€Å"The deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy.† (Oxford Dictionary). Nearly three out of ten women in the U .S. have an abortion by the time they are 45-years-old (Planned Parenthood). Abortion is morally permissible because an abortion prevents a woman and the potential child’s suffering. Abortion is moral because it is a fundamental right of competent adults to make their own decisions on the course of theirRead MoreIs Abortion Morally Permissible?1977 Words   |  8 PagesThe question of whether or not abortion is morally permissible is widely disputed amongst those who are pro-life or pro-choice. While in some societies abortion has been outlawed, others either entirely allow for it or consider abortion permissible on a case-by-case basis. Many pro-lifers classify abortion as immoral, some even considering it murder. Abortion is typically defined as terminating a pregnancy before the fetus is able to survive outside of the womb. A crucial factor in determining whetherRead MoreIs Abortion Morally Permissible?1879 Words   |  8 PagesAbortion is morally permissible in all ca ses; regardless of how the pregnancy came about. The question of whether the fetus is granted personhood at conception or anytime during its development is entirely irrelevant. The right to control your own body often trumps someone’s right to life. Even if you declare personhood to the fetus, it does not determine the morality of abortion. Whether it is â€Å"killing an innocent child† or not does not take away the fact that this country has time and time againRead MoreThesis: Is Abortion Morally Permissible?851 Words   |  4 PagesAbortion Thesis: Abortion is morally permissible in which a fetus is not a person which deprives the fetus to its right to life, circular reasoning is an ineffective to oppose abortion, abortion only risks the fetus not society, and deprivation from a fetuss future and suffering of a loved one has no affect on the argument towards anti-abortion. Mary Anne Warren in On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion stated the characteristics which are central to the concept of personhood which are â€Å"sentienceRead MoreEssay about Abortion: Morally Permissible or Impermissible?2524 Words   |  11 PagesAbortion: Morally Permissible or Impermissible? Abortion can be defined as a means of terminating a pregnancy by removing or expelling a fetus from the uterus before viability. Abortion has been, and will always be, a controversial issue in today’s society and in the future. People have always struggled to determine whether it is ethical to abort a fetus; morally permissible (acceptable) or morally impermissible (unacceptable). The polarizing views that are associated with abortion makes thisRead MoreWhy Should Sex Selection Abortions Are Morally Permissible?923 Words   |  4 Pagessex-selection abortions are morally permissible?† No, I do not think they are morally permissible. Not so much because of the utilitarian’s belief, which I will get into later, but because I do think a fetus is a person. And like Kantians who believe fetuses are persons, the fetus has all the rights and due all the respect that any other person has. To abort that fetus because it’s a girl (or a boy) does not give any righ ts to the fetus. With that said however, that doesn’t mean I think abortions themselvesRead MoreMarquis vs. Warren in the Case Against Abortion1298 Words   |  6 Pagesdetermining if abortion is morally permissible, or wrong including; sentience of the fetus, the fetuses right to life, the difference between adult human beings and fetuses, the autonomy of the pregnant woman, and the legality of abortion. Don Marquis argues that abortion is always morally wrong, excluding cases in which the woman is threatened by pregnancy, or abortion after rape, because fetuses have a valuable future. Mary Anne Warren contends that late term abortions are morally permissible becauseRead MoreA Defense Of Abortion By Judith Thomson1678 Words   |  7 PagesWhat takes precedence; an unborn fetus’ life or its mother’s right to her body? Anti-abortionist argue that the life of an unborn fetus has priority, and thus abortion is morally impermissible as it violates the fetus’ right to life. I n her article â€Å"A Defense of Abortion†, Judith Thomson argues that abortion is morally permissible under the certain conditions where the rights of the fetus fail to surpass a mother’s right of choice. For the sake of her argument, Thomson allows the assumption that

Defining Security Free Essays

Defining Security â€Å"Security† comes from a broader subject referred to International Relations which is the study of all political cooperation that occurs between states that have their own government, international organizations with or without government influence, and some wealthy separate individuals. â€Å"Security Studies concerns itself with a sub-set of those political interactions marked by their particular importance in terms of maintaining the security of actor† (Hough 2008: 2). Depending on the emergency of security of an actor will depend how a government or country will act on the security measure. We will write a custom essay sample on Defining Security or any similar topic only for you Order Now For example, concerns relating to health and rights of the people will be at top on the global political agenda compare to other events such as natural disasters or mass killings are rarely seen as security concerns. It might be of importance to the people that these events are happening to, but not to the people not being affected. There are four main paradigms of International Relations that affect issues in security. Those paradigms are Realism, Pluralism, Marxism, and Social Constructivism. Realism is the idea that states should be self-centered, competitive, and should look after themselves and not trust any other states. The state should do anything within its reach to expand its power in wherever possible being in military or economic sectors in order to secure themselves and be at the top. Realists tend to favor governments that separate the high and low politics and best serve the national interest. Low politics such as health issues, welfare, and other issues of that sort should be dealt at a domestic level and is separate from high politics, such as war. The idea globalization in the 60’s and 70’s took International Relations to a different perspective because not only did they have to deal with military power issues but now they had economic power issues to worry about. That’s where Neo-Realism developed. Neo-realism still maintained the self-centered approach on the states but also included the idea to expand their powers beyond the sector of military and focus on to the state’s economy. In addition to Realism, another paradigm that affected issues in security was Pluralism. Pluralism was developed from a group of scholars that believed that Neo-realism had developed far enough from Realism. Pluralists believed that the pursuit of military power and economic power by a state, which was the idea derived from the thinking of Realism was too simple. â€Å"Pluralists, as the term implies, consider that a plurality of actors, rather than just states, exert influence on the world stage† (Hough 2008: 4). Pluralism, which was built from the idea of liberalism, stated that the interests of individuals would be better served in an environment where their own governments would stop controlling their lives. Unlike realism, pluralists thought of â€Å"low politic† concerns as priorities for International Relations. The paradigm of Marxism focused more on economic concerns rather than military or any other power. Marxism viewed globalization to an idea of the past; there was nothing new in the idea of globalization. Globalization was just a different way to demonstrate that the states with large economies would exploit the smaller ones. sort of like the bigger kid bullying the smaller kid. In a Marxist perspective, wars were fought for economic purposes which indicated that military power was used for economic gain instead for security. Social constructivism came into play in the 1990’s after there were many unsatisfied in the other paradigms. Social constructivism â€Å"favors a more sociological approach and advocates a greater appreciation of the cultural dimension of policy making† (Hough 2008: 6). It argued that â€Å"world stage actors† did not follow any type of rational script rather, â€Å"foreign policy reflects parochial ideological or moral guidelines rather than objective gains† (Hough 2008:6). In the wide and narrow conceptions of security, the varied range of threats to humans have changed the whole perspective of international security, which previously had been based just on military based issues. Ullman described that a threat to security was solely based on two factors: the first, any threat that lowered the quality of a states’ people and second, any threat that narrowed the policy choices of any actor of the state. After the Cold War, some traditionalist suggested for security studies to go ‘back to basics’ instead of widening their security measures to â€Å"low politics† issues, they should stick to â€Å"high politics† issues such military threat. â€Å"The widening of security did not undermine the realist logic of conventional security studies. The focus was still on the state system and seeing relationships between states governed by power. Widening was simply extending the range of factors that affect state power beyond the confines of military and trade affairs† (Hough 2008: 8). As for the realist, the ideology stayed the same. The main focus was still in the state’s issues and its people, but as for the widening it, it was just the extension of some issues that affected state’s power, beyond military issues. The deepening of security was driven by pluralists and social constructivists which believed that the concept of â€Å"human security† should be based on the individual’s need that makes up the different groups that exist and not the ‘actors’ issues. With that being said, the Copenhagen School philosophy cannot be resolved by the thought of the pluralists and the social constructivists which shifts the idea of security from the states to the people. â€Å"While accepting the idea that non-military issues can be securitized and that the referent object of this can be something other than a state, maintains the logic that only the state can be the securitizing actor† (Hough 2008: 9). The state would be the only one to determine if the issue that is being securitized is an existential threat and if needs to be acted upon. The securitization of issues must be determined by the state’s government and be prioritized by if it’s a ‘low or high politics’ issue. As mentioned in the book, South Africa was one of the first countries that shifted away from military priority to a health priority. â€Å"The proportion of South Africa’s (GDP) Gross Domestic Product spent on military defense is 1. 5 per cent and the overall proportion on health is 3. percent† (UNDP 2002). Today, military threats in some countries are still their priority but global leaders are still able to balance their military and health expense. In conclusion, â€Å"Security† comes from a broader subject referred to International Relations. The paradigms that affect issues in security are realism, pluralism, Marxism, and social constructivism, having realist b eing the one which has dominated the study of security focuses on military security and to serve the state’s best interest. Although the Marxist idea was to focus more on economic issues instead of military or any other issues, the pluralist and the social constructivist perspective changed the spectrum of international security from what was once solely based on military issues had broaden to other ‘low politics’ issues such as concerns relating to health and rights of the people, so basically shifting the idea of security from the states to the people. In the end, the securitization of issues must be determined by the state’s government and must be prioritized by if it’s a ‘low or high politics’ issue. Workcited Hough, Peter. 2008. Understanding Global Security (2nd Edition). New York: Routledge. â€Å"United Nations Development Programme† http://www. undp. org/ How to cite Defining Security, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Verbal discussion Essay Example

Verbal discussion Essay Telephone calls are used for verbal discussion within businesses. They can be used when contacting both people outside of the premises and even people within the same premises. An employee within a business may use a telephone call to contact a customer in order to gain their immediate response. Video conferencing is a meeting which takes place in two different locations but the conversation takes place through a computer screen. Both sides of the conversation can see as well as hear each other. A business may use video conferencing if they have another branch of the business in another country as people at the business abroad would be able to be involved in a meeting taking place. Telephone calls are suitable for gaining an immediate response as it is always possible to know whether the message was received or not. If another communication method was used to deliver the same message such as SMS messaging or email you would never be sure that the message has been received until a reply has been received. However with a telephone call as you speak to the person themselves you have the assurance that the message has been received. This communication method is suitable as a business cannot afford nor have the time to always travel for meetings. A video conference allows the meeting to take place over a computer screen or allows other people elsewhere to have an insight into a meeting taking place. It is suitable for businesses which have several branches as they would no longer have to travel to each other for meetings. We will write a custom essay sample on Verbal discussion specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Verbal discussion specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Verbal discussion specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Computers and the internet help many businesses as they provide the communication method of email and instant messaging. The internet also gives a business access to the worldwide web which may be useful to a business when advertising their company (communicating with customers) as well as being able to research whatever information may be needed for their job. This communication has helped boost sales in businesses and strengthened the relationships with existing and potential customers. Touch screen allow people to touch certain areas of a screen to interact with the machine or make the machine do something. Touch screens are a replacement for a keyboard or a mouse. Businesses that sell products to customers use tills that have touch screens. Touch Screens are a suitable method of communication for businesses that use tills with a touch screen as they make it much easier and quicker to make transactions with a touch screen. They are easy to use as they simply require a touch of the screen rather than pressing any controls or typing. They are also suitable as they do not require as much space as there is no keyboard or mouse needed on the desk as they touch screen controls all of this. DVD shows all the content that was shown on VHS tape but on a disk. The sound quality and picture is however much better. A business can use DVDs when training their staff as training guidance may be put onto DVD where staff can watch these DVDs as many times as needed. DVDs are suitable in businesses for training staff as the quality of the DVD itself would be to a high standard. DVDs would also be suitable as they not require much storage space as they are slim disks. DVDs can also be used by businesses to store and read information if they have a DVD drive within their computer software. They are suitable for storing information as they have a high capacity of storage for data so large amounts of information can be stored on a DVD disk. Mobile phones enable verbal communication and SMS messaging from whether the person chooses to take their mobile phone with them. Mobile phones can be used within a business in communicating with staff when they are not currently at work. Staff can also use mobile phones to contact their place of work if they are running late to work. Mobile Phones are a suitable method of communication as they can be taken with people wherever they go. This means that they are always able to gain contact with whoever they need and can also be reached wherever they are. It is suitable for staff to use mobile phones when they are running late to work as they can phone into their place of work to let them know. As they will have their mobile phone with them this will be possible Portable Communication Devices (mobile phones and PDAs) have WAP which enables people to surf the internet, view their emails and use the internet in the ways it is used at an actual computer. WAP can be used by businesses as staff can email and will receive their emails even when they are not at a computer screen. Similarly to the suitability for mobile phones WAP is suitable as it has good portability and can be used in many locations. However mobile phones would not be able to gain access to the internet without WAP. WAP is suitable for use within businesses as it enables employees to access their emails wherever they are so that they do not have to wait until they are next at work or somewhere with internet access.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Sin and Punishment in Relation to Satan and Human Being Essays

Sin and Punishment in Relation to Satan and Human Being Essays Sin and Punishment in Relation to Satan and Human Being Essay Sin and Punishment in Relation to Satan and Human Being Essay Man is generally known in both psychological and theoretical aspect is imperfect due to his innate nature. This idea is mainly attributed to the fact that it is stated in the Bible that humanity themselves became imperfect though they are created to be the other way. This is actually because of the event of when the first man and woman committed the first and one of the most unforgivable sins in the whole theoretical history of man. This is the first defiance of the man to God’s will and command in direct association with the two thus together with the fall of the first man and woman is the fall of the whole humanity following them in imperfection. From birth, man has already unconsciously committed sin through inheritance and this sin thus, originally he is already made imperfect. Also from this state, man’s continuous pursuit in life is deeply embedded with many pitfalls and downfalls that from it man, through lack of faith and with imperfect discretion, is bounded to fall one way or another thus resulting him to committing sins. For human philosophy and even with the expression from the bible’s historical events, sin or fault is naturally with direct connotation to the idea of punishment. This punishment principle is like a bargaining deal that states that whatever is loss through fault is punishable with compensatory damages to the one committed it (Newbolt, 2005). Thus, because of humanity’s imperfection, they are more likely to commit sin and be punish for it because of which, they strongly needs divine guidance in their course for purification and atonement for their aim of salvation. Sin and Punishment min Relation to Satan It is embedded in the historical facts of the Bible that the first downfall of humanity through the state of imperfection is through the direct defiance of the first man and woman to the direct command of God. This action resulted to their punishment of stripping off their perfected state and letting them endure the hardship of life for survival and the atonement of their sin. However, in one aspect, this defiance that is explicitly stated in this paper can also be attributed to another intervention causing the enactment of the said serious sin. This is the temptation done by the devil generally called Satan in most religious principles. Satan, is originally and contextual mean accuser, slanderer, liar and an adversary of the truth and all the good things in life (Pagels, 1989; Wikipedia, 2006). His aims and purpose is to cause humanity to commit sin and recruit them to his falsehood together with his condemnation. His main existence is to test the faith of humanity to God and their endurance to stay in the path of righteousness by creating pitfalls for them to stumble on. However, Satan is known to be purposely created by God to be his servant and one of his main servants. According to the Bible, Satan at first was created to be an angel with perfect and beautiful form to aid His biddings and His divine plan for the world and the humanity. However though, Satan the angel has fallen because of his own sin and started the rebellion for him to gain divined powers and superiority because of his aims to be the Supreme Being (Pagels, 1989). Thus, because of his own sin he was punished with condemnation that is equally commensurable to the crime and wickedness he committed in the first place giving him the title of the devil and an enemy of the truth. Just like what he did in his rebellion in heaven, which is his recruitment of allies to his own downfall, he is still doing the same though with different purpose and different targets. Satan the devil’s presence is with the humanity leading them to the same path, which is in just like what he did with t he first man and woman. He is continuously urging humanity to commit sin and punishable errors against God and His righteous Laws and setting up traps and pitfalls for them to prevent them from purifying themselves and atoning for their sins both that of they inherited and committed in their personal lives. Conclusion From the previously stated argument, it is explicitly expressed that the sin and downfall of humanity in imperfection can be directly attributed to the intervention of Satan the Devil himself by shifting to different forms. In addition, since it is explicitly stated in the bible that Satan the Devil himself is residing in the world together with the humanity, his threats and the dangers he post is very evident with humanity’s sin as also attributed by their imperfect discourse. Thus, Satan the Devil can be argue to have a direct connection with humanity as they are residing in the same place because of which, he can directly affect their minds and hearts and lure them to sinful lives and condemnation. Since humanity has already been made imperfect, their defense against Satan the Devil’s lure and threats became apparently weak and they can be easily persuaded to commit sin. However, their faith to God and their adherence to the principles explicitly stated and deeply embedded in the Bible, they can strengthen this defense and resist against Satan’s influences thus achieving forgiveness for their sins and be purified to perfection once again. Bibliography Linthicum, Robert C. City of God, City of Satan. Zondervan. ISBN: 0310531411. April, 1991. Newbolt, W. C. E. The Phenomena of the Punishment of Sin and of Redemption. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN: 1425476627.   December, 2005. Pagels, Elaine. Adam, Eve, and the Serpent. Vintage; Vintage Books Edition. ISBN: 0679722327. September, 1989. Wikipedia. Satan. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. November, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satan. November 18, 2006.

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Anzick Clovis Burial Site in Montana

The Anzick Clovis Burial Site in Montana The Anzick site is a human burial which occurred approximately 13,000 years ago, part of the late Clovis culture, Paleoindian hunter-gatherers who were among the earliest colonizers of the western hemisphere. The burial in Montana was of a two-year-old boy, buried beneath an entire Clovis period stone tool kit, from rough cores to finished projectile points. DNA analysis of a fragment of the boys bones revealed that he was closely related to Native American people of Central and South America, rather than those of the Canadian and Arctic, supporting the multiple waves theory of colonization. Evidence and Background The Anzick site, sometimes called the Wilsall-Arthur site and designated as Smithsonian 24PA506, is a human burial site dated to the Clovis period, ~10,680 RCYBP. Anzick is located in a sandstone outcrop on Flathead Creek, approximately one mile (1.6 kilometers) south of the town of Wilsall in southwestern Montana in the northwestern United States. Buried deep beneath a talus deposit, the site was likely part of an ancient collapsed rock shelter. Overlying deposits contained a profusion of bison bones, possibly representing a buffalo jump, where animals were stampeded off a cliff and then butchered. The Anzick burial was discovered in 1969 by two construction workers, who collected human remains from two individuals and approximately 90 stone tools, including eight complete fluted Clovis projectile points, 70 large bifaces and at least six complete and partial atlatl foreshafts made from mammal bones. The finders reported that all of the objects were coated in a thick layer of red ocher, a common burial practice for Clovis and other Pleistocene hunter-gatherers. DNA Studies In 2014, a DNA study of the human remains from Anzick was reported in Nature (see Rasmussen et al.). Bone fragments from the Clovis period burial were subjected to DNA analysis, and the results found that the Anzick child was a boy, and he (and thus Clovis people in general) is closely related to Native American groups from Central and South America, but not to later migrations of Canadian and Arctic groups. Archaeologists have long argued that the Americas were colonized in several waves of populations crossing the Bering Strait from Asia, the most recent being that of the Arctic and Canadian groups; this study supports that. The research (to an extent) contradicts the Solutrean hypothesis, a suggestion that Clovis derives from Upper Paleolithic European migrations into the Americas. No connection to European Upper Paleolithic genetics was identified within the Anzick childs remains, and so the research lends strong support for the Asian origin of the American colonization. One remarkable aspect of the 2014 Anzick study is the direct participation and support of several local Native American tribes in the research, a purposeful choice made by lead researcher Eske Willerslev, and a marked difference in approach and results from the Kennewick Man studies of nearly 20 years ago. Features at Anzick Excavations and interviews with the original finders in 1999 revealed that the bifaces and projectile points had been stacked tightly within a small pit measuring 3x3 feet (.9x.9 meters)  and buried between about 8 ft (2.4 m) of the talus slope. Beneath the stone tools was the burial of an infant aged 1-2 years of age and represented by 28 cranial fragments, the left clavicle and three ribs, all stained with red ochre. The human remains were dated by AMS radiocarbon dating to 10,800 RCYBP, calibrated to 12,894 calendar years ago (cal BP). A second set of human remains, consisting of the bleached, partial cranium of a  6-8-year-old child, were also found by the original discoverers: this cranium among all the other objects was not stained by red ochre. Radiocarbon dates on this cranium revealed that the older child was from the American Archaic, 8600 RCYBP, and scholars believe it was from an intrusive burial unrelated to the Clovis burial. Two complete and several partial bone implements made from the long bones of an unidentified mammal were recovered from Anzick, representing between four and six complete tools. The tools have similar maximum widths (15.5-20 millimeters, .6-.8 inches) and thicknesses (11.1-14.6 mm, .4-.6 in), and each has a beveled end within the range of 9-18 degrees. The two measurable lengths are 227 and 280 mm (9.9 and 11 in). The beveled ends are cross-hatched and smeared with a black resin, perhaps a hafting agent or glue, a typical decorative/construction method for bone tools used as atlatl or spear foreshafts. Lithic Technology The assemblage of stone tools recovered from the Anzick (Wilke et al) by the original finders and the subsequent excavations included ~112 (sources vary) stone tools, including large bifacial flake cores, smaller bifaces, Clovis point blanks and preforms, and polished and beveled cylindrical bone tools. The collection at Anzick includes all reduction stages of Clovis technology, from large cores of prepared stone tools to finished Clovis points, making Anzick unique. The assemblage represents a diverse collection of high quality, (probably un-heat-treated) microcrystalline chert used to make the tools, predominantly chalcedony (66%), but lesser amounts of moss agate (32%), phosporia chert and porcellanite. The largest point in the collection is 15.3 centimeters (6 inches) long and some of the preforms measure between 20-22 cm (7.8-8.6 in), quite long for Clovis points, although most are more typically sized. The majority of stone tools fragments exhibit use wear, abrasions or edge damage which must have occurred during use, suggesting this was definitely a working toolkit, and not simply artifacts made for the burial. See Jones for detailed lithic analysis. Archaeology Anzick was accidentally discovered by construction workers in 1968  and professionally excavated by Dee C. Taylor (then at the University of Montana) in 1968, and in 1971 by Larry Lahren (Montana State) and Robson Bonnichsen (University of Alberta), and by Lahren again in 1999. Sources Beck C, and Jones GT. 2010. Clovis and Western Stemmed: Population Migration and the Meeting of Two Technologies in the Intermountain West. American Antiquity 75(1):81-116.Jones JS. 1996. The Anzick Site: Analysis of a Clovis Burial Assemblage. Corvallis: Oregon State University.Owsley DW, and Hunt DR. 2001. Clovis and Early Archaic Period Crania from the Anzick Site (24PA506), Park County, Montana. Plains Anthropologist 46(176):115-124.Rasmussen M, Anzick SL, Waters MR, Skoglund P, DeGiorgio M, Stafford Jr TW, Rasmussen S, Moltke I, Albrechtsen A, Doyle SM et al. 2014. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana. Nature 506:225-229.Stafford TWJ. 1994. Accelerator C-14 dating of human fossil skeletons: Assessing accuracy and results on New World specimens. In: Bonnichsen R, and Steele DG, editors. Method and Theory for Investigating the Peopling of the Americas. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University. p 45-55.Wilke PJ, Flenniken JJ, and Ozb un TL. 1991. Clovis Technology at the Anzick Site, Montana. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 13(2):242-272.

Friday, February 14, 2020

The Artificial Nigger Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Artificial Nigger - Essay Example Their trip was filled with conversations, with each grandfather and grandson asserting his wisdom. One point in particular that the child said is, the trip is his second, the first being when he was still a baby. Moreover, he insisted that he would know what a nigger looked like once he saw one because he was born in a city where they abound. The old man said he could not have known any of what he was talking about because he did not have the intelligence then and the boy got his first test on the train when Mr. Head asked what kind of man was the one who passed them by. When he did not get the answer he was expecting, he pointed out to the boy what he previously said, that he would be able to know a nigger when he sees one but then he proved not to be able to do so. When they got off the train, the old man who looked at himself as a sage who is supposed to fill the mind of the young boy with learning soon discovered he also had a lot to learn. Nelson in turn learned the lessons his grandfather authored for him and more and therefore decided not to go back to the city. The aforementioned circumstances came about due to an instance wherein the boy was placed in a dilemma when he hurt a woman who was carrying some groceries when he went frantic looking for his grandfather who left him at a distance, trying â€Å"to teach him a lesson†. When Mr. Head was threatened by the women who were trying to seek justice from the accident his grandson caused, he denied that he knew the boy. Nelson, who looked up to him as a savior at such a dire situation was angry that his own grandfather would disown him. When the two continued to find their way to train station, the old man learned how it felt to need mercy and forgiveness because this was still the first time he had ever failed his grandson. Nelson in turn learned how he needed his grandfather. The story is meant to show how an educator needs to be educated as well. The grandfather does not just represent old age b ut also wisdom which should be gained through years of experience. Mr. Head knows that his grandson should learn many things about his birthplace and decides to make him experience how it is to live in the city. His intention is to make Nelson see that there is nothing to boast about in being born in the city so just as he gained wisdom through experience he contemplates that the best way to open the eyes of the young boy is to let him experience a day in the city. Although Mr. Head only meant the trip for the learning of the boy, he is to find out that there is also a lesson waiting for him. The grandfather, being an old man, always thought he is better than his grandson and when they got lost, he still was too prideful to admit his mistakes. He insists on concentrating in teaching Nelson that the place they are in is where he was born and that there is nothing good about it that he should be proud of. When the two realize that they left their lunch at the train, the boy blames his grandfather of getting them lost and leaving their food. However, instead of admitting his lack of judgment, the old man tried to blame things back to the young boy. The old man is too proud to stoop down and admit his mistakes to his young grandson. On the other hand, the young boy learns little by little